The purpose of this policy is to promote a philosophy and practice of
maternal infant care that advocates breastfeeding based on the recommendations
from the most current evidence. Good Samaritan Hospital (GSH) staff will
actively support breastfeeding as the preferred method of providing nutrition
To provide specific policies that ensure that the hospital promotes the
Ten (10) Steps to Successful Breastfeeding and the International Code
of Market of Breastmilk Substitutes provided and approved by BabyFriendly
USA that are routinely communicated to health care staff. To assure that
staff have the knowledge and skill necessary to support infant feeding
consistent with evidence and identified patient needs in the inpatient
and outpatient settings that service Good Samaritan Hospital.
The decision whether to breastfeed or provide breast milk for her newborn
should be an informed choice made by the mother. Exclusive breastfeeding
will be recommended as the ideal nutrition for newborns. When appropriate,
mothers who plan to combine breastfeeding and formula feeding should be
educated about the advantages of beginning with full breastfeeding to
establish her milk supply.
The GSH Breastfeeding Task Force is a multidisciplinary team to comprising
hospital administration, physician, nursing, lactation consultants, pharmacy,
materials management and other appropriate staff, established to identify
and eliminate institutional barriers to breastfeeding.
The obstetric, pediatric and neonatal physician staff shall support human
milk for all babies for whom breastfeeding is not specifically medically
contraindicated and provide parents with complete, up to date information
to ensure that their feeding decision is a fully informed one. Mothers
who choose not to breastfeed for medical or personal reasons shall be
treated with respect and support. Medical contraindications include:
- Maternal HIV infection
- Active herpes on the breast
- Maternal active tuberculosis infections
- Infant galactosemia
- Maternal illicit drug use
- Maternal administration of certain medication (chemotherapy, radioactive
- Active, untreated varicella
- Previous breast surgery (if the mother is unable to produce breastmilk)
- Medically unstable mother (admission to the ICU postpartum)
Good Samaritan Hospital will adhere to and promote policies consistent
with Baby Friendly USA that will include the Ten (10) Steps to Successful
Breastfeeding. The Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding delineated below
have been demonstrated to increase both initiation and duration of breastfeeding.
A. The Perinatal Management Team (Director, Manager, Department Supervisors,
Lactation staff and Educators) is responsible for the development, implementation,
evaluation and revision of a written breastfeeding policy. This policy
will be communicated to all healthcare staff. The policy will be posted
on the intranet and assessable to all staff at Good Samaritan Hospital.
B. This policy will be reviewed annually and revised a minimum of every
3 years by the Director of Perinatal Services and perinatal employees.
The Medical Staff (Pediatric Committee, Obstetric Committee, and the Medical
Executive Committee) as well as the Board of Directors will approve the
policy revisions as presented. The policy will be posted on the intranet
to be accessible to all employees.
C. GSH will maintain a Breastfeeding Task Force that will meet a minimum
of quarterly to oversee compliance with this policy with house wide membership.
D. New hires will be educated on this infant feeding policy during the
mandatory breastfeeding education class that must be completed within
6 months of hire. They will be provided a GSH 15hour course or an online
E. This facility upholds the World Health Organization (WHO) International
Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes by offering education and
materials that support human milk rather than infant food or drinks and
by refusing to accept or distribute free or subsidized supplies of breast
milk substitutes, nipples and bottles by October 2015.
a. No employees of manufacturers or distributors of breast milk substitutes,
bottles, nipples, or pacifiers have direct or indirect contact with pregnant
women or mothers.
b. Vendors will have limited/restricted access to the hospital’s
c. Vendors requesting access to perinatal units are only permitted access
by registering with Materials Management and making a scheduled appointment
to enter the facility. The Director of Perinatal Services will be contacted
directly to discuss any exception to this access.
d. Vendors will not be permitted to provide group instruction in any location
where care is provided to mothers and babies (Labor & Delivery, Postpartum/Acute
Obstetrics, and NICU).
e. GSH and its staff members may not receive any free gifts, nonscientific
literature, materials, equipment, money or support for breastfeeding education
or events from manufacturers’ or distributors of breastmilk substitutes,
bottles, nipples or pacifiers.
f. Pregnant women, mothers or their families are not given marketing materials
or samples/gift packs by Good Samaritan Hospital that include breast milk
substitutes (formula), bottles, nipples or other infant feeding equipment
or coupons for any of these items.
g. Any educational materials distributed to breastfeeding mothers (discharge
education booklet) and the hospitals Newborn Channel are free of messages
or logos that promote or advertise infant food or drinks other than breastmilk.
2. Train all health care staff in the skills necessary to implement this policy.
A. The Perinatal Manager(s) and Director in collaboration with the Perinatal
and Lactation Educators is responsible for implementing and assuring that
all staff in the perinatal units are educated and trained in breastfeeding.
The curriculum for this education will cover the 15 sessions identified
by BabyFriendly USA.
B. The Perinatal Management Team will plan, implement, evaluate and annually
review/revise as needed this competency based training in breastfeeding
and parent teaching for formula preparation and feeding for all staff
caring for mothers and infants. Training programs will vary in length
and substance depending upon the level of competency required by the health
care teams function, responsibility and previously acquired training,
and will include documentation that essential skills have been completed.
C. The Breastfeeding Task Force will determine the amount of training
required by staff in other units and roles based upon their exposure to
mothers and babies, current guidelines are:
- Perinatal services Physicians and Allied Health Professionals will be offered
a minimum of 3 hours of breastfeeding management education.
- All new clinical employees who will provide direct patient care to pregnant/postpartum
mothers and/or infants will be required to receive appropriate lactation/infant
feeding education as a part of their orientation (must be completed within
6 months of hire). Education will be provided by a 15hour didactic class
or comparable online program, with the addition of 5 hours bedside application training.
- Documented lactation education and training prior to employment will be
evaluated and accepted if it adheres to the requirements set forth by
Baby Friendly USA and it has been completed within 3 years.
All perinatal nursing staff coming in contact with mothers and infants
will be required to participate in a standardized breastfeeding education:
All obstetrics registered nursing staff will receive a total of 20 hours
of training which includes 5 hours of supervised clinical training/demonstration
at bedside within 6 months of hire. Trained GSH lactation staff (CLE or
IBCLC) will validate the clinical bedside demonstration.
All NICU registered nurses must complete a breastfeeding course (at minimum
the Wellstart 3 hour breastfeeding curriculum). The Department Supervisors,
Relief Charge RN’s and Lactation certified staff in NICU will receive
the 15 hours of didactic education.
Supervision/oversight of the breastfeeding training program will be the
responsibility of the Perinatal Services Director.
Documentation of lactation education (didactic class and demonstration)
will be maintained in the employee files.
D. The annual job performance appraisal of perinatal employees will include
lactation skills and compliance with this breastfeeding policy for the
obstetric nurses in contact with mothers and infants.
E. The GSH Perinatal Unit skills fair will provide annual updates to support
continuing education of breastfeeding (incorporating new evidence and
areas of identified opportunity/improvement).
F. The staff and physicians at GSH do not receive free gifts, equipment,
money, or support for breastfeeding education or events from manufacturers
of breastmilk substitutes, bottles, nipples, or pacifiers.
3. Inform pregnant women about the benefits and the management of breastfeeding.
A. GSH will foster programs that make education about breastfeeding available
to pregnant women for whom the facility provides inpatient services. Pregnant
women and their support persons (as appropriate) will be educated on the
benefits of breastfeeding, the contraindications to breastfeeding and
the risk of formula feeding. The OB Liaison to the prenatal clinics will
provide education schedules and community resource lists to the clinics.
B. Mothers will be encouraged to exclusively breastfeed unless medically
contraindicated. Exclusively breastfed newborns will receive no other
liquids or solids with the exception of oral medications prescribed by
a medical care provider. C. GSH Community Liaison will promote breastfeeding
with the clinics that routinely delivery at GSH in the following ways:
- Maternity Tours at GSH will include the importance of breastfeeding, skin
to skin, and rooming in.
- The clinics will be educated to avoid product names, images and logos as
well as coupons with infant formula.
- The clinics will be provided the list of educational breastfeeding classes
and community resources provided at GSH.
- The patients will be provided breastfeeding booklets for education (the
materials will meet the Baby Friendly materials requirement).
- The educational materials provided are free of logos, product names or images
D. GSH Childbirth Services at Community Health education staff provide
Prenatal Education classes in English, Spanish and Korean and will include
breastfeeding basic education to patients from both clinic and private
settings. The curriculum includes:
- The benefits of breastfeeding
- The importance of exclusive breastfeeding
- Nonpharmacological pain relief methods for labor
- Early initiation of breastfeeding
- Early skin to skin contact
- Rooming in on a 24hour basis
- Baby led feeding
- Frequency of feeding in relation to establishing a milk supply
- Effective positioning and latch techniques
- Exclusivity of breastfeeding for the first 6 months
- Continuation of breastfeeding after introduction of appropriate complimentary foods
- The focus of these classes is on breastfeeding. Combination (breastfeeding
and formula feeding) is not encouraged nor a part of the curriculum in
E. All prenatal educational media will be free of messages that promote
artificial feeding. In-services or group talk that promote the use of
formula and bottles for infant feeding is discouraged and flyers are not
to be posted in GSH lounges or nursing stations.
F. The patient’s desire to breastfeed or not will be documented
in the medical record. Mothers will be encouraged to exclusively breastfeed
unless medically contraindicated. If contraindications are identified
the physician will be notified and the mother educated.
4. Help mothers initiate breastfeeding, as soon as the mother is responsive
A. To facilitate mother infant bonding, to ensure best practices for breastfeeding
support and to safety transition the infant from intrauterine life to
extra uterine life, all mothers and infants will be encouraged to participate
in skin to skin care regardless of feeding choice. Staff (nursing, midwives,
and physicians) should offer assistance and education during this period
to help the parents learn and respond to the infant’s feeding cues.
The nursing staff will document the skin to skin contact in the nursing
B. Skin to skin contact is defined as placement of the naked baby prone
on the mother’s bare chest postdelivery. GSH staff responsible for
caring for mothers and babies will help mothers initiate breastfeeding
as soon as the mother is responsive and alert, unless contraindicated,
and assure the early initiation of skin to skin contact and breastfeeding.
C. For vaginal deliveries, the infant is dried and immediately placed
skin to skin as soon as feasible usually within 5 minutes when mom is
alert and able to hold the baby postdelivery (routine care assessments,
Apgar scores) will be done with the baby skin to skin. Routine newborn
procedures will be postponed until after the initial skin to skin period
and (if required based on the newborn assessment the RN can give on the
mother’s chest), whenever feasible.
D. For mothers that choose to formula feed, the initial period of skin
to skin for one hour will be encouraged. Procedures that require separation
of the baby and mother (bathing, etc.) should be delayed until after the
E. Post Cesarean birth babies will be encouraged to breastfeed as soon
as possible, usually in the recovery area when the mother is able to respond
to her baby. Skin to skin will begin as soon as the mother is responsive
and alert. The staff will offer assistance with positioning to minimize
incision discomfort, and the use of a pillow to protect the incision site.
F. If the mother and/or infant are medically unstable and are separated
for medical reasons, the nursing staff will ensure that skin to skin contact
will be initiated as soon as the mother and baby are reunited. For NICU
/Nursery babies separated for medical reasons, if the babies and mother’s
condition allows, the mother will be assisted in initiating skin to skin
contact in the Newborn Nursery and or NICU settings.
5. Show mothers how to breastfeed and how to maintain lactation even if
they are separated from their infants.
A. Staff caring for the newborn and mother are accountable to assess the
mother’s breastfeeding techniques and, if needed provide assistance
with breastfeeding within the first six (6) hours after birth and during
each shift throughout her stay.
B. GSH staff caring for the mothers will initiate education to the mother
and family member upon admission to labor & delivery (triage, antepartum
admission or labor admission). An educational packet is given to the mother
with written materials to be able to refer to at home in postpartum (a
booklet on her care as well as her baby, breastfeeding basics, a resource
sheet) and other materials to support her transition to home.
C. Labor & Delivery nurses will begin breastfeeding education and
assist mothers with skin to skin post vaginal and cesarean section deliveries
and parents will be encouraged to continue skin to skin in the postpartum setting.
D. All staff is responsible to document the education and assessments
in the patient care record.
E. Staff will routinely assess mother/baby comfort, and effectiveness
of breastfeeding feeding:
a. At the shift assessment, the nurse will educate mothers in correct
positioning, latch and the signs of effective feeding in addition to the
physiological processes and breastmilk volume.
b. Education will include the importance of breastfeeding, how to maintain
breastfeeding for at least 6 months, criteria to assess if the baby is
getting enough breastmilk (showing the “belly balls badge illustration)
to show the size of the baby’s stomach, and baby feeding readiness
(hunger cues, signs of effective feeding).
F. Staff are to also educate the family in how to express, handle and
store breastmilk (including manual expression), and how to sustain lactation
(even if the mother is separated from her infant or will not be exclusively
breastfeeding after discharge):
G. Lactation support will provide individualized assistance to high risk
and special needs mothers and infants and to mothers who are having breastfeeding
problems and /or those who must be separated from their infants.
H. Best practice when mothers and babies are separated includes:
- Begin milk expression within 6 hours of birth (educate mother to pump 8
or more times in a 24hour time period) with at least one pump session
during the night.
- Instruct the mother on how to do hand expression or use the electric breast
pump and kits.
- Teach proper storage and labeling of human milk.
- Expressed milk is given to the baby as soon as the baby is medically ready.
- The mother’s expressed milk is used before any supplementation with
breastmilk substitutes when medically appropriate.
- Mothers of preterm or sick neonates will be educated about collecting their
milk (see the policy” Breast Milk Management and Storage.”
6. Give infants no food or drink other than breastmilk, unless medically
A. Mothers who have chosen to feed formula will receive both written and
verbal information about safe preparation and feeding of infant formula,
- VLBW infants <1500 grams
- Infants born <32 weeks gestation
- Infants at risk of hypoglycemia – preterm, IDM, SGA, Asphyxiated
or ill newborns
- Severe maternal illness
- HSV lesion on the breast
B. Formula will not be placed in or around the breastfeeding infant’s
bassinet or in the mother’s room.
C. Formulas will not be part of the standard orders for newborn care and
will only be given to infants per physician’s order and with the
mother’s knowledge of the reason why.
D. When supplementation is medically indicated, artificial nipples will
be avoided and an alternate feeding method will be utilized first. A lactation
educator will provide education regarding options to the mother or a nurse
trained in using that method to maintain mother infant breastfeeding skills.
Care should be taken not to exceed the physiologic capacity of the newborn
stomach at each feeding:
- On Day #1 of life no more than 15 cc per feeding should be given.
- On Days 2 and 3, no more than 30 cc per feeding should be given.
E. If a mother requests that her baby be given formula, the healthcare
staff will address the mother’s concerns, health of the baby and
the success of breastfeeding. If the mother still requests formula, her
request should be granted and her informed decision documented.
F. All efforts will be made to supplement with the mother’s milk.
If the maternal milk supply is inadequate, formula will be used.
G. Reason for supplementation and education provided will be documented.
Supplemental feeding devices used at this facility include spoons, cups,
syringes and SNS (supplemental nursing system).
H. GSH will pay fair market value to purchase formula, nipples, bottles
I. Formula will be stored in a secure location in all perinatal units
and distribution will be monitored.
J. Reference books and the pharmacy staff will be used as references to
verify medication contraindications. If contraindications are identified,
the physician will be notified and the mother educated.
7. Practice rooming in; allow mothers and infants to remain together 24
hours a day.
A. Rooming in (accommodations in a private room for the mother and infant
and significant other to remain together 24hours a day), is the standard
for normal newborns, regardless of infant feeding choice and assured throughout
the hospital stay unless contraindicated.
B. The mother and infant (normal deliveries without complications) will
remain together postdelivery as soon as feasible and be transported to
the postpartum unit together for both vaginal and cesarean deliveries.
C. The mother infant couplet will be protected from disruption that may
impact their ability to bond or interfere with breastfeeding needs. Breastfeeding
takes priority over tasks and nurses are advocates for the couplet including
asking visitors to wait when the mother is breastfeeding, bonding or during
times of needed rest.
D. Procedures will be performed at the mother’s bedside with the
focus of keeping the mother and newborn together (whenever possible),
and should avoid separations and/or absences of the newborn from the mother
for no more than one hour per day.
E. If the maternal or infant conditions preclude rooming in, all efforts
will be made to return the infant to the mother for breastfeeding. The
infant will return to the newborn nursery for care and be returned to
the mother when her condition is stable.
F. If the mother requests that the infant be cared for in the Nursery,
the maternity staff will explore the reasons, encourage and educate about
the advantages of rooming in 24 hours/day and the availability of staff
support. If the mother insists on the infant being cared for in the Nursery,
then the education, the processes and decision will be documented in the
G. Whenever rooming in is interrupted, the reason for the interruption,
the location of the infant during the interruption and the time the infant
leaves and returns to the mother’s room will be documented in the
infant’s medical record.
H. If the infant is separated from the mother for any reason, the infant
will be brought to the mother for feedings whenever the infant shows feeding cues.
8. Encourage breastfeeding on demand.
A. Mothers will be encouraged to breastfeed on demand or when the baby
exhibits hunger cues or signals. Mothers will be educated as to these
feeding readiness cues (increased alertness /activity, mouthing, or rooting)
to be used as indicator of the infant’s readiness for feeding.
B. Education will be provided to the mother and includes but is not limited to:
- Milk production and release.
- Frequency of feeding on demand (a minimum of 812 times/day); hunger cues.
- Proper positioning and latch on
- Hand expression of breastmilk and the use of a pump if indicated.
- How to assess if her newborn is adequately nourished
- The importance of physical contact & bonding which are as important
as nourishment during breastfeeding.
- When to contact a healthcare professional.
C. Time limits for breastfeeding will be avoided. Infants can be offered
both breasts at each feeding but the baby may be interested in feeding
only on one side per feeding in the early days. (See #6 – “g”
for additional specifics on feeding amounts)
9. Give no pacifiers or artificial nipples to breastfeeding infants
A. Pacifiers will not be given to normal full term breastfeeding infants.
The use of pacifiers or other soothers will be delayed in breastfeeding
infants until breastfeeding is well established (about one month per American
Academy of Pediatrics).
B. All parents will be given education about how the use of bottles and/or
pacifiers may interfere with the development of optimal breastfeeding
and with babies’ suckling or demonstration of hunger cues and this
education will be documented.
C. When a mother requests that her breastfeeding baby be given an artificial
nipple or pacifier, the nurse will:
- Inform her of the AAP recommendations to avoid the use of artificial nipples
for 1 month.
- Teach alternative methods of pacification and encourage to breastfeed frequently
in response to baby’s hunger cues.
- Instruct her regarding the possible negative consequences artificial nipples
and pacifiers may have to breastfeeding.
- Document this education and outcomes in the baby’s chart.
D. Infants with certain medical conditions and newborns undergoing procedures
may be given a pacifier for comfort or pain management. The infant will
not return to the mother with the pacifier.
E. GSH encourages pain free newborn care, which may include breastfeeding
during heel stick laboratory procedures.
F. Exceptions to this policy may occur when a mother must feed her newborn
expressed breastmilk or a formula and chooses to use a bottle after being
educated regarding alternative feeding choices /options.
G. Routine use of nipple creams, ointments, or other topical preparations
will be avoided unless such therapy has been indicated per the medical
care provider. Mothers with sore nipples will be observed for latch on
techniques and be instructed to apply expressed colostrum or breastmilk
to the areola/nipple after each feeding.
H. Artificial nipples, pacifiers, other soothers, bottles and breastmilk
substitutes will not be included in any gift packs given to pregnant patients
or breastfeeding mothers. Marketing materials and coupons for these items
will be excluded as well.
10. Foster the establishment of breastfeeding support groups and refer
mothers to them on discharge from the hospital.
a. The nursing staff will refer breastfeeding mothers to community lactation
support skilled to assist with assessing, intervening and supporting the
breastfeeding couplet after discharge.
b. The assigned maternity staff members will assess with the mother, significant
other and family members plans for the infant’s feeding after discharge.
Discharge planning and teaching will include:
- information on the importance of exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months
c. Any nursing concerns related to the infant’s ability to latch
or effective suckle at the breast will be communicated to the infant’s
healthcare provider prior to discharge.
d. Discharge planning will include phone numbers for a community resource
Pediatric Emergency Room and contact information for their pediatrician office.
e. In the discharge paperwork, the mother will be instructed to contact
her healthcare provider/clinic for any concerns or questions about breastfeeding.
The GSH maternity unit number is an additional resource that will be provided
for lactation specific support.
f. All infants of breastfeeding mothers will be instructed to contact
their Primary MD for an appointment to be seen within 4872 hours after
discharge. The lactation team from GSH will do follow up phone calls to
all exclusively breastfeeding patients within one week post discharge.
g. The GSH staff will collaborate to discover breastfeeding resources
to support education to the breastfeeding mother and infant. A list of
these resources will be printed and included in a discharge packet to
all breastfeeding families in English, Spanish and Korean languages.
1. Policy: Breast Milk Management and Storage
2. Bottle Feeding, Infant (NICU)
3. Breast Pump, Use and Care of Electric Pump
4. Breast Milk: Use of Donor Milk (NICU)
5. Golden Hour
- The American Academy of Pediatrics (2005), Policy on Breastfeeding and
the Use of Human Milk, 115 (2): 496506. Illinois.
- BabyFriendly USA, Guidelines and Evaluation Criteria for Facilities Seeking
Baby Friendly Designation. Sandwich, MA: BabyFriendly USA, 2010.
- BabyFriendly USA, Inc., (2013) Guidance Tool for Developing the Facility’s
Maternity Care and Infant Feeding Policies: Implementing the Ten Steps
to Successful Breastfeeding.
- The US Department of Health and Human Services (2000). HHS Blueprint for
Action on Breastfeeding, Office on Women’s Health, US Department
of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.
- Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee (2009). Clinical Protocol
#19: Breastfeeding promotion in the perinatal setting. Breastfeed Medicine, 4, 4345.
- Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee (2009), Clinical Protocol
#3: Hospital guidelines for the use of supplementary feedings in the healthy
term breastfed neonate. Breastfeed Medicine, 4, pp. 175182.
- Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol (2010). Clinical Protocol #7:
Model Breastfeeding Policy. Breastfeed Medicine, Volume 5, Number 3.
- Mikiel Kostyra K, Masur J., Boltrusko, I. (2002) Effect of early skin to
skin contact after delivery on duration of breastfeeding: A prospective
cohort study. Acta Paediatr 29, pp.13011306.
- Howard C, Howard F., and Lanphear B. et al (2005) Randomized clinical trial
of pacifier use and bottle feeding or cup feeding and their affect on
breastfeeding, Pediatrics, 111, pp. 511518.
- Marinelli, K., Burke, G, Dodd, V. (2001) A comparison of the safety of
cup feedings and bottle feedings in premature infants whose mothers intend
to breastfeed. J Perinatology, 21, pp. 350355.
- Gray, L, Miller, L, Philipp, B, et al. (2002) Breastfeeding is analgesic
in healthy newborns. Pediatrics, 109, 590593.
- Wight, N., Marinelli, K., Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee.
Clinical protocol #1: Guidelines for glucose monitoring and treatment
of hypoglycemia in breastfed neonates, revision June 2006. Breastfeed
Medicine 2006:1: 178184.
- Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee, Clinical protocol
#2: Guidelines for hospital discharge of the breastfeeding term newborn
and mother, ‘The going home protocol.’ Breastfeed Medicine
2, pp. 158165.
- The Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, Protecting, Promoting and Supporting
Breastfeeding: The Special Role of Maternity Services (1989). The World
Health Organization (WHO), Geneva.
- FeldmanWinter, L., Procaccini, D., Merewood, A. (2012). A Model Infant
Feeding Policy for Baby –Friendly Designation in the USA. Journal
of Human Lactation. Sage Publications.
Childbirth Services Coordinator Director of Perinatal Services